210.52(C) of the 2017 NEC lays out the requirements for kitchen countertops and the receptacles that are required to serve them. The countertop space located directly behind a range, counter-mounted cooking unit (such as a cooktop), or sink may or may not be counted as part of this measurable countertop surface when determining receptacle requirements and receptacle spacing for the countertop. It all depends on the depth of countertop surface behind that component.
The NEC underwent some big changes in 2017, including the redefinition of wall space, when it comes to fixed cabinets installed along a wall space. Prior to 2017, a cabinet affixed to a wall in a bedroom, den, library, etc. simply broke that wall space into two separate wall spaces. The measurement along the wall ended once you reached the fixed cabinet, and a new measurement began at the other end of the cabinet – but not anymore!